How space exploration has benefited materials development
6 July 2018
The space race has led to the creation of some outstanding inventions, which have not only benefited man’s mission to space, but also computer technology, industrial productivity, transportation and consumer technologies. Here, Melissa Albeck, CEO of online materials database Matmatch, explains how the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) determination to solve out of this world problems has led to the creation of many things we take for granted.
In NASA’s 60-year history, one in every 1,000 patents granted in the US is believed to have been filed by someone working on one for the organisation’s projects. With so many prolific problem solvers, it was inevitable that some of these inventions would make their way into the mainstream and be used in everyday applications. Enter NASA spinoff technologies.
NASA spinoff technologies are commercial products and services that have been developed with support from NASA, through research and development contracts, licensing patents, use of NASA facilities or even data from research. The NASA Technology Transfer Program has connected the space agency’s resources to private industry for over 50 years, leading to the creation of a number of every-day materials.
In 1966 scientist Charles Yost and Chiharu Kubokawa invented ‘temper foam’, a temperature-sensitive memory foam that aimed to improve the safety of aircraft cushions. Created by feeding gas into a polymer matrix, the foam has an open-cell solid structure that slowly returns to its original shape once pressure has been released.
In 1967, Yost in collaboration with NASA, established Dynamic Systems Inc to commercialise the foam. Since then, memory foam has been used for a multitude of applications; from shoe insoles and mattress pads to helmet lining and prosthetic limbs.
One of the most destructive forces in engineering is the corrosive effect of saltwater. This natural process converts a refined metal to a chemically-stable form, such as oxide, hydroxide or sulphide and is particularly prevalent in marine and coastal built environment applications.
In the 1970’s, NASA researchers discovered that by coating equipment with a protective layer containing zinc dust and potassium silicate they could prevent the corrosion process.
Inorganic Coatings Inc took this concept one step further in the 1970, when it produced IC 531 zinc silicate, a non-toxic, water-based coating that bonds with steel to create a ceramic-like finish that prevents corrosion.
There was once a time when eyeglasses were made of glass, but in 1972 the US Food and Drug Administration declared that all lenses should be shatter-resistant, which in turn led to the introduction of plastic lenses.
While plastic is more durable than glass, it is much easier to scratch. However, a discovery by NASA scientist Ted Wydeven, would change this. While developing a water purification system for a spacecraft, he coated a filter with a thin, plastic film. The surprisingly tough film formed the basis for an abrasion-resistant coating for space helmet visors. The concept was commercialized in 1983 by Foster-Grant to make scratch-resistant sunglasses.
Dealing with the challenges
While there are many challenges ahead as we continue to explore the far reaches of the universe, we also face a number here on earth too. From healthcare and the environment, to education and technology, there are materials and innovation challenges that can draw inspiration from grand engineering, such as the space race. To tackle these issues, cross-sector collaboration, particularly between the public sector and private sector organisations such NASA, will be imperative.
While businesses may be reluctant to share their findings about material applications, resources such as Matmatch’s online materials database can easily supply all the information an engineer might need, from tensile strength to heat dissipation.
While we have only scratched the surface of space exploration, the results of the journey so far have already benefited the human race, and engineering, a great deal. As we enter the fourth industrial revolution, manufacturing can learn from the attitudes of NASA scientists and their willingness to share knowledge.
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